Resistant Starch and IBS: Hidden Danger?
Resistant starch is formed when foods like rice and pasta are refrigerated after cooking. They can act just like a FODMAP but there are special considerations.
Our current understanding of the relationship between consumption of resistant starch and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is still developing, and the precise mechanisms behind the effects of resistant starch on IBS symptoms are not yet fully understood. However, I will attempt to provide a detailed overview of the topic based on the available scientific literature.
Resistant starch is a type of starch that is not digested in the small intestine and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by gut bacteria. It is classified into four main types (RS1, RS2, RS3, and RS4) based on its structure, source, and resistance to digestion. The formation of resistant starch, particularly RS3, through retrogradation is of particular interest when discussing its relationship with IBS.
Retrogradation is a process in which gelatinized starch molecules, upon cooling, realign themselves and form double helices. These double helices are insoluble in water, which contributes to their resistance to digestion. Factors such as refrigeration temperature, refrigeration speed, and time spent refrigerated can affect the amounts of resistant starch formed. Generally, lower temperatures and longer storage times promote the formation of resistant starch, although the specific effects may vary depending on the food and processing conditions.
There is limited data available in the scientific literature on the relationship between different types of starchy foods, their susceptibility to retrogradation, and their effects on IBS symptoms. However, some studies have indicated that certain starchy foods, such as potatoes, rice, and pasta, may be more prone to retrogradation when cooled and stored.
The notion that resistant starches are universally "good" is not entirely accurate, as their effects on gut health can vary depending on the individual and their specific gastrointestinal conditions. While resistant starches have been shown to have potential health benefits, such as promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria and improving insulin sensitivity, they can also cause gastrointestinal symptoms in some individuals, particularly those with IBS.
The idea that resistant starches are "slow fermenters" and therefore less likely to cause IBS symptoms may not hold true for everyone. It is true that the speed of fermentation may not be the primary factor determining IBS symptoms. However, the total amount of gas produced as a result of fermentation, which is influenced by FODMAP content and resistant starch amounts, is relevant. In some individuals with IBS, the fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine can lead to increased gas production and exacerbate IBS symptoms.
In conclusion, the relationship between consumption of resistant starch and IBS is complex and not yet fully understood. Factors such as the type of starchy food, its susceptibility to retrogradation, and the individual's specific gastrointestinal conditions can all influence the effects of resistant starch on IBS symptoms. While resistant starches may have health benefits for some people, they can also exacerbate IBS symptoms in others. More research is needed to better understand the mechanisms behind these effects and to develop personalized dietary recommendations for individuals with IBS.