Name of Protein
Adiponectin receptor 1
Regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in response to adiponectin
Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) is a cell surface receptor protein that plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation. This receptor is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, but can also be found in other tissues, such as the liver and adipose tissue. AdipoR1 is one of the two known receptors for adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone with pleiotropic effects on various physiological processes.Adiponectin is an essential hormone secreted by adipose tissue, and its levels are inversely correlated with obesity and insulin resistance. The primary function of adiponectin is to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, promote insulin sensitivity, and exert anti-inflammatory effects. It achieves these functions by binding to its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, thereby activating a series of intracellular signaling pathways.Upon binding of adiponectin to AdipoR1, the receptor activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. AMPK is a central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, controlling glucose and lipid metabolism, and promoting fatty acid oxidation. Activation of the AMPK pathway by AdipoR1 leads to increased glucose uptake, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and reduced inflammation, all of which contribute to the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis.In addition to its role in energy metabolism, AdipoR1 has been implicated in the regulation of other cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy. The receptor has been found to modulate the activity of several signaling pathways, such as the PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways, which are known to play crucial roles in cellular growth, survival, and stress response.Dysregulation of AdipoR1 function has been associated with various metabolic disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Reduced expression or altered function of AdipoR1 may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and inflammation, key features of these disorders. Therefore, targeting AdipoR1 and its downstream signaling pathways may provide novel therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.