top of page


Name of Protein

Adenylate cyclase 3

Protein Function

Year Discovered

Regulates cAMP signaling| involved in energy homeostasis



Adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) is a membrane-bound enzyme that plays a crucial role in intracellular signaling and the regulation of various physiological processes. It is one of the ten known isoforms of adenylate cyclase, which catalyze the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and inorganic pyrophosphate. cAMP is a vital second messenger that modulates the activity of numerous proteins, including protein kinases, ion channels, and transcription factors, ultimately affecting diverse cellular functions.AC3 is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system, particularly in the olfactory system, where it plays a critical role in odor detection and signal transduction. AC3 is essential for the proper functioning of olfactory sensory neurons, as it converts odorant-induced receptor activation into an intracellular cAMP signal. This cAMP-dependent cascade leads to the opening of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, allowing the influx of cations and the generation of an electrical signal, which is then transmitted to higher brain centers for odor perception.Beyond its role in the olfactory system, AC3 has been implicated in other physiological processes and disorders. Studies have linked AC3 to the regulation of energy balance and body weight, suggesting that altered AC3 activity might contribute to the development of obesity. Additionally, AC3 has been associated with mood disorders, such as major depression and bipolar disorder, indicating a potential role in the regulation of mood and behavior.Pharmacological modulation of AC3 and other adenylate cyclase isoforms has gained interest as a potential therapeutic strategy for various diseases. By targeting AC3 and its downstream cAMP-dependent signaling pathways, novel treatments for obesity, mood disorders, and other conditions might be developed.In summary, adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) is a membrane-bound enzyme that plays a critical role in intracellular signaling and the regulation of diverse physiological processes, including odor perception, energy balance, and mood. Its involvement in these processes makes AC3 an intriguing target for further research and potential therapeutic interventions for obesity, mood disorders, and other related conditions.

bottom of page