Name of Protein
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta
Regulates fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta (ACC2) is an essential enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, specifically in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. It belongs to the acetyl-CoA carboxylase family, which also includes acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACC1). These enzymes catalyze the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of fatty acids.ACC2 is predominantly expressed in tissues with high rates of fatty acid oxidation, such as skeletal muscle, heart, and liver. It plays a crucial role in controlling the balance between fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. Malonyl-CoA, the product of ACC2 enzymatic activity, is not only a key substrate for fatty acid synthesis but also a potent inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1). CPT1 is an essential enzyme for transporting long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, where they undergo beta-oxidation to generate ATP. By producing malonyl-CoA, ACC2 effectively inhibits CPT1 and regulates fatty acid oxidation.The activity of ACC2 is regulated by various factors, such as phosphorylation, allosteric effectors, and hormonal control. In particular, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates and inactivates ACC2 in response to low cellular energy levels, promoting fatty acid oxidation and energy production. On the other hand, insulin can stimulate ACC2 activity, favoring fatty acid synthesis and storage.Dysregulation of ACC2 has been implicated in the development of metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Altered ACC2 function may lead to imbalances in fatty acid metabolism, contributing to lipid accumulation and the development of insulin resistance. Consequently, pharmacological modulation of ACC2 activity has gained interest as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating metabolic diseases.In summary, acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta (ACC2) is a vital enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, regulating the balance between fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. Its function and regulation are essential for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and overall metabolic health. Dysregulation of ACC2 may contribute to the development of metabolic disorders, making it a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.