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Sub-Cellular Composition

Classification based upon the functional parts of cells

Smaller than cells and bigger than molecules: subcellular body composition

Has growing relevance to human health and especially to weight.

Sub-Cellular Composition

Sub-cellular Function

Here's a list of 20 abundant sub-cellular components in the human body. These components are essential for various cellular functions and maintaining the overall structure of the cell. The list is not exhaustive, and the abundance of these components may vary between cell types:

  1. Cell membrane (plasma membrane) - the outer barrier that separates the cell's interior from its surroundings

  2. Cytosol - the fluid inside the cell that contains dissolved molecules and ions

  3. Nucleus - the membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA

  4. Nuclear envelope - the double-layered membrane surrounding the nucleus

  5. Nucleolus - a region within the nucleus involved in ribosome biogenesis

  6. Chromosomes - structures within the nucleus containing DNA and associated proteins

  7. Mitochondria - organelles responsible for producing energy (ATP) through cellular respiration

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - a membranous network involved in protein synthesis, lipid metabolism, and detoxification a. Rough ER - studded with ribosomes for protein synthesis b. Smooth ER - lacking ribosomes and involved in lipid synthesis and detoxification

  9. Ribosomes - molecular machines responsible for protein synthesis

  10. Golgi apparatus - a stack of membrane-bound compartments involved in protein modification, sorting, and transport

  11. Lysosomes - membrane-bound organelles containing enzymes for the breakdown of cellular waste and foreign material

  12. Peroxisomes - small organelles involved in the breakdown of fatty acids and detoxification of harmful substances

  13. Cytoskeleton - a network of protein filaments and tubules that provide structural support and enable cell movement a. Microtubules b. Actin filaments (microfilaments) c. Intermediate filaments

  14. Centrosomes - microtubule organizing centers involved in cell division

  15. Centrioles - cylindrical structures found within centrosomes that help organize the mitotic spindle during cell division

  16. Vesicles - membrane-bound sacs used for transporting molecules within the cell

  17. Vacuoles - membrane-bound compartments that store various substances and help maintain cellular homeostasis

  18. Autophagosomes - double-membrane structures involved in the breakdown and recycling of cellular components

  19. Cell junctions - structures that connect and maintain communication between neighboring cells a. Tight junctions b. Gap junctions c. Adherens junctions

  20. Extracellular matrix - a network of proteins and carbohydrates that provide structural support and help maintain cell organization in tissues

These sub-cellular components work together to carry out various cellular processes and maintain the overall function and structure of cells in the human body.

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